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UNIVERSITY 
OF FLORIDA 
LIBRARIES 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalrevie1972pana 




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David S. Parker 

Governo r-President 

Charles R. Clark 

Lieutenant Governor 

Frank A. Baldwin 

Panama Canal Information Officer 




Official Panama Canal Publication 



Morgan E. Goodwin, Press Officer 

Publications Editors 

Willie K. Friar, Tomas A. Cupas 

Writers 

Eunice Richard, Fannie P. Hernandez, 

Jose T. Tufion and Luis C. Noli 



Review articles may bereprinled willioul fuilher clearance. Credit lo the Review will be appreciated. 
Subscriptions: $1 a year, airmail $2 a year,- back copies (regular mail), 50 cents each. Published twice a year. 

Make postal money orders payable to the Panama Canal Company, Box M, Balboa Heights, C.Z. 
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building, Balboa Heights, C.Z. Printed at the Printing Plant, Lo Boca, C.Z. 



Contents 



Art Contest 3 

The building of the Canal 
through the eyes of chil- 
dren 

Taboga 6 

New plans afoot for Pan- 
ama's tranquil "Island of 
Flowers" 

What's In A Name? 10 

Clues to a colorful past in 
local place names 

Painters Make Striking 
Pictures 14 

Dramatic photographs of 
Thatcher Ferry Bridge 
being made spic-span 

Passing Parade of Ships 16 

Vast armada reflects 
changing times 

Shipping Notes 22 

Culinary Capers 24 

Tropical treats for the 
creative cook 

Beer 28 

Nine million gallons a 
year flow from Panama's 
breweries 



History 



31 



Sketches in this issue by Cados Men- 
dez and cartoons bij Peter Curneij. 




EVERYONE HAS HEARD OF 
wicked Captain Fokke who cursed 
tlie Almightly one day 300 years ago 
while beating against the wind as he 
tried to round Cape Horn. He and his 
phantom ship have sailed the seas ever 
since haunting all honest maiiners. 

While assembling pictures of inter- 
esting ships using the Panama Canal for 
the 6-page feature that appears in this 
issue, it was found that nearly every 
unusual ship, except the Fhjing Dutch- 
man, has been here at least once. 

The Tusitala of New York was no 
Flying Dutchman but she was almost 
as interesting. In 1929 when she was 
still making transits of the Panama 
Canal, she was the only United States 
flag sailing ship remaining in the trade 
between Atlantic and Pacific ports of 
the United States. In the picture taken 
in 1927 showing her in Gatun Locks, 
she was on a regular trade route be- 
tween Seattle and Baltimore and at that 
time had on board a cargo of magnesite 
and lumber. 

The Tusitala was built in 1883 in 
Greenock, Scotland, and was regarded 
as a good example of the fine models 
turned out at that time. 

Painted a sparkling white and with 
every stitch of canvas set taut, the 
vessel presented a yacht-Uke appear- 
ance which inspired pride in the hearts 
of old sailors. 

She was purchased by a group of 
men in New York in 1923 and her name 
changed to Tusitala or "Story Teller," 
a name conferred by Samoans upon 
Robert Louis Stevenson, who spent the 
last years of his life in the South Seas. 
The formal change of flags was marked 
in New York by a ceremony befitting 
the occasion, according to an account 
of the event. A bottle of champagne was 
broken on the bell by Will H. Low, 
artist, and old friend of "R. L. S.," 
and a few words of benediction were 
spoken. Christopher Morley, who was 
at the helm, read a letter from Joseph 
Conrad addressed to the new owners. 



Spring 1972 



And Boi^ ColfrU 




A Fi«ik Ne# L(Hvlt at tke 
Buiidlna ol tke Canal, 



KIDS ARE FUNNY PEOPLE. 
And their imagination, when 
stirred onlv shghtly, can produce some 
prett)' fantastic ideas. The Panama 
Canal RE\^Ew set out to prove this 
point by sponsoring a contest among 
fifth and si.xth grade students in Canal 
Zone Schools. 

The children were provided statistics 
on such things as the amount of con- 
crete used to build the locks, the volume 
of material excavated from Gaillard Cut 
and the number of holes perforated to 
sink dvTiamite charges during the con- 
struction of the Canal. Then they were 
asked to use their imagination. 

The results were just short of over- 
whelming, despite the fact that classes 
in the Latin American schools were 
nearly over and there was not time to 
obtain entries from them. 

Renderings came in crayon, pen and 
ink, oils and water colors, bright colors 
and bold strokes. Many showed amaz- 
ing ingenuity and quite a few revealed 
a keen sense of humor in the young 
artists. One child, obviously feeling 
that President Theodore Roosevelt had 
adequately summed up the story of 
the Canal, painstakingly copied one of 



Teddy's better-known quotations and 
sent that along as her entry. 

On the Covers 

The work of the two first-place win- 
ners appears on the front and back 
covers. Author of the watercolor on the 
front cover is 10-vear-old Laura Otter, 
daughter of Maj. and Mrs. Jason I. Otter, 
of Howard AFB. The back cover is a 
crayon drawing by Ted Osborne, 11, 
son of Mr. and Mrs. Theodore M. 
Osborne of Panama City. Ted's father 
is emploved at Fort Amador. Though 
both children have been on the Isthmus 
less than a year, they have already 
learned much about the Canal and its 
history in school and through their own 
research. 

The first-place winners received a 
plaque on which is mounted a piece of 
rock from Gaillard Cut, a 3-month pass 
to any Panama Canal movie theater, 
and were taken on a comprehensive 
tour of the printing plant, where they 
learned about offset printing from real 
experts. 

Veteran lithographer Juan Fernan- 
dez V. explained to the children 
how their original artwork was photo- 




graphed, color separations and plates 
made, before the printing process ac- 
tually began. Laura and Ted were 
given proofs of each of the four colors 
used in printing the cover— red, yellow, 
blue, and black— to show their class- 
mates at school. 

The workings of the offset press, 
where the final product rolls off, were 
explained by Mario B. Rivera. 

Drawings and paintings selected for 
second prize and those chosen for hon- 
orable mention are reproduced on the 
next two pages. Two hundred and fifty- 
tvvo students from both sides of the 
Isthmus entered the contest. V. C. 




The Panama Canal Review 




Grade 6, 



^"^ ^.%^^^ 



W. 



EXCAVATED OIRT 
^ROn CANAL - 
7000 TinES 
HIGHER THAN 
^'r- C\/ER£ST 




Jerri Love, Second Prize 
Grade 5, Fort Gulick 




0U+0V4-n{tCQnQl I 














\- 



Nancy Rodriguez 
Grade 6, Ancon 




Aailk 







The. H.SOO.OCX) Cubic qcrds o\ Ce,nen+ 
u'ieJ +0 build +he locks ujouli *^i\l 
l%n,1U,i:)4 W our HqI(^ GcxUon MUk 
ton+oiiner?. 



Marj' Kelleher, Second Prize 
Grade 6, Balboa 



Rodolfo Mon 
Grade 5, Margarita 



Connie Hallada 
Grade 6, Diablo Heights 




Daphne Downing 
Grade 6, Margarita 




Grade 5, Fort Gulick 



Spring 1972 




Johnny Tate 
Grade 6, Margarita 






\,rrf 




Charles Bowen 
Grade 6, Gamboa 



tfrf 




Gilbert Corrigan 
Grade 5, Margarita 



PANAHA CAHAL - 

211000,000. C.i.cYc.cl, 
EXCAVATED DIRT ?? 






^'j. ^ 




Manny Olivaz 
Grade 5, Fort Gulick 



/T 


.-/.•./iMiTf USED 

iN lA mitts THE 
\v/!: p. , 


/ 






'EfiFT>^ 




_ ^ 



Teddy Haff 
Grade 6, Los Rios 




iJ Kocics Tr 



Karen Dyson 
Grade 6, Balboa 



The Panama Canal Review 




Tabo 




By Jose T. Tufion 




3.K> 



»; 



Architectural drawing showing some of ttie 55 modem cabins to be constructed on the adja- 
cent island of El Morro as a part of the hotel complex that will include the Taboga Hotel. 



CLOSELY LINKED TO THE 
colorful history of Panama, the 
picturesque island of Taboga has known 
the fury of marauding pirates, the intol- 
erance of the Conquistadores, the bold- 
ness of the Gold Rush adventurers, and 
the glory of producing a saint. Through 
it all the island has remained unsullied. 

An idyllic hilly island in Panama Bay, 
reminiscent of Capri, Taboga is only 
about 12 nautical miles, or an hour by 
launch, from Panama City. Its proximity 
and its white sand beaches have made 
it a prime candidate for further develop- 
ment by the Republic of Panama Tourist 
Bureau. 

Plans are now afoot to build a hotel 
complex which would include the pres- 
ent Hotel Taboga and 55 modem cabins 
to be constructed on El Morro, a small 
adjacent island. It would be adminis- 
tered by the Hyatt International Hotel 
chain. 

Balboa 

Although Vasco Nvmez de Balboa, the 
first Spaniard to set foot on the small 
dot of land, called it St. Peter's Island, 
the Indian name of the ruling cacique 
prevailed and nearly 450 years after its 
founding, the island still maintains the 
simplicity and flavor of bygone days. 

Tvpical of the Spanish colonial set- 
tlements in the New World, the little 
town of Taboga sprang up around the 
church. Its narrow streets, now paved, 

6 Spring 1972 




are barely wide enough for the passage 
of the few vehicles on the island. 

The absence of traffic noises and ex- 
haust fumes to pollute the clean sea 
breezes and the magnificent view of 
velvet sea and ships from far-off lands 
waiting to enter the Canal have made 
Taboga a favorite weekend retreat for 
Panama and Canal Zone residents and 
a year-round tourist attraction. 

Quiet rural lanes fully skirted by a 
profusion of bougainvillea and fiibiscus 
blooms in red, white, and pink, accen- 
tuated by the fragrance of roses and 
sweet jasmine, give Taboga the atmos- 
phere of an eternal garden and the name 
"Island of Flowers." 

Spanish Conquest 

During the Spanish conquest, Tabo- 
ga's inhabitants were virtually elimi- 
nated. When a decree by Charles V put 
an end to slavery, only about 700 slaves 
remained in Panama and its environs; 
the majority of these had been brought 
from Venezuela and Nicaragua. Among 
them were a handful of native slaves 
who became the settlers of Taboga. 

A new village was founded in 1524 
by Padre Hernando de Luque, dean of 
the Panama cathedral. He built a com- 
fortable house on the island and re- 
mained there most of the time. It was 
Padre Luque who provided funds and 
blessed Francisco Pizarro and Diego de 



No traffic noises disturb the 
quiet of Panama's historic 
''Island of Flowers'' 




El Morro played an important role in world shipping a Uttle over 100 years ago when the 
Pacific Steamship Navigation Co. established its Panama headquarters there. Many forty- 
niners en route to California spent their "waiting" days in Taboga boarding houses. 



The Panama Canal Review 




Taking advantage of 
low tide, visitors walk 
over to the 
island of El Morro, 
where the U.S. Navy 
had a "mosquito hoat" 
training base during 
World War 11. 




An ancient anchor frames a scene of narrow flower-bordered lanes curving past small white 
houses and Taboga's historic church, where the little town sprang up during the Colonial era. 



Almagro before they set off from Ta- 
boga on their conquest of the flourishing 
Inca Empire. 

In addition to his church duties, he 
raised fruits and vegetables on the fer- 
tile soil of Taboga, devoting much of 
his time to his pineapple plantations. 
Padre Luque's pineapples could well be 
the progenitors of the pineapple patches 
that pepper the island today. 

Taboganos still recall the venerable 
priest by referring to a crystaline pool 
in the folds of Picacho del Vigia, the 
highest point on the island, as the 
"Bishop's Pool." 

Santa Rosa de Lima 

They remember, too, that Santa Rosa 
de Lima, the first saint of this hemi- 
sphere, was conceived in Taboga. Ac- 
cording to Don Manuel Pefiuela, for 
many years a municipal official in Ta- 
boga, the parents of the young girl who 
was later to be canonized, had lived in 
a charming house on the beach, now 
owned by Sefiora Abigail Pacheco de 
Diez. 

Taboga's wholesome, healthy atmos- 
phere has been recognized since colo- 
nial days when Panama City residents 
flocked to the island during epidemics 
or for a respite from the city heat. On 
several occasions, Taboga has been un- 
officially the summer capital of Panama, 
especially during the terms of President 
Belisario Porras. 

The Panama Tourist Bureau operates 
a modem hotel on the island, which is 
the headquarters of numerous water 



8 



Spbing 1972 



sports activities held during the year. 
Pleasure boats from Panama and vachts 
from all parts of the world may be seen 
anchored in front of the hotel throughout 
the year. 

Hotel Chu, a two-story wooden struc- 
ture built on the beach after the turn of 
the centurv, offers adequate but not Ulx- 
urious comfort and spectacular vistas of 
Panama Bay. 

Facing Hotel Taboga and linked to 
the island at low tide hv a sandbar, is 
El Morro, a small rock>' islet, where 
at the end of the 17th centur\' the 
Spaniards established a fort to defend 
Taboga. 

Three Cannons 

During the wars of Independence in 
Latin America, it was the three cannons 
on EI Morro, manned by 10 Spanish 
soldiers, that fought off the attacks of 
John Illingworth, in 1819. During a 
second attack, however, the invaders 
took Taboga, the inhabitants fleeing to 
the hills. Three of the invaders were 
killed and buried by the villagers, who 
marked their graves with wooden 
crosses. With the passing of the years, 
cast iron crosses embedded in a mortar 
base, replaced the wooden markers. To 
this day, Taboganos in the vicinit)' of 
"Las Tres Cruces" never fail to light a 
candle in memory of the three who 
dared to disturb the peace of their little 
island. 

A little over 100 years ago. El Morro 
played an important role in world ship- 
ping. The Pacific Steamship Navigation 
Co., an English company with ships plv- 
ing between England and the Pacific 
ports of South America, e.vtended its 
route to include Panama. Aware of the 
abundance of supplies and potable 
water and general healthy conditions on 
the islet, the company purchased El 
Morro. They built workshops, a ship 
repair facility, supply stores and a coal- 
ing station and brought over hundreds 
of Irishmen to work in the supply base, 
ft was at about this time, too, that the 
49'ers discovered the healthy aspects of 
Taboga. many of them spending their 
"waiting" days in boarding houses there. 
A trace of Anglo-Saxon names can still 
be seen on sparkling white tombstones 
in the cemeter)'. 

The Golden Age 

Taboga was the seat of government 
for all the islands in the Gulf of Panama, 
including the Perlas Islands. Islanders 
prospered and it was the Golden Age of 
Taboga. Prosperity continued until sev- 
eral years later when the Pacific Steam 
transferred its shops to Callao, Peru. 

Taboga Island had an important role 



in the constinjction of the Canal. In 
1883, during the French effort to con- 
struct a Panama Canal, they built a 
25-bed sanatorium on Taboga for ailing 
and convalescing employees of the com- 
pany. A few years later, in the grim 
battle with disease, the French built a 
50-bed, $400,000 sanatorium on the 
island. 

This building was taken over by the 
United States in 1905 as a rest and 
recuperation center for Canal construc- 
tion workers. It served this purpose 
until January 1915, when it became a 
vacation resort for employees and 
their families and was known as Hotel 
.\spinwall. 

The .\spinwall was converted into an 
internment camp for German prisoners 
during W'orld War I. After the war it 
was once again a hotel and recreation 
center and was the hub of Taboga 's 
social life until 1945. The Aspinwall is 
gone but many an Isthmian still recalls 
this hotel on the beach at Taboga and 
the part it played in social activities of 
that bygone era. 

Mosquito Boats 

During \\'orld War II, the U.S. Naw 
had a "mosquito boat" training base on 
El Morro. The heroic record of these 
boats in the Pacific theater of war 
proved the efficiency of the officers and 
sailors on El Morro. 



Today, a modern aid to aerial naviga- 
tion, at the top of Picacho del Vigia, 
guides all aircraft to the Isthmus. 

Numerous legends and romantic 
myths ha\-e been woven into the ti'adi- 
tions and folklore of the island. Among 
these is the celebration of a water fes- 
ti\al on July 16 in honor of the Virgin 
of El Carmen, the patron saint of Tabo- 
ga. A number of boats, usually led by 
the most lu.vairious yacht of the Panama 
Yacht and Fishing Club carrying a 
statue of the Virgin, sail in a procession 
around the island. The procession in- 
cludes pleasure boats of all t\^es and 
sizes and pangas, the flat-bottom canoes 
used by the fishermen, all beautifully 
decorated for the occasion with the 
occupants singing praises to their patron 
saint. 

According to Taboga lore, many 
years ago, a pirate ship attempted to 
attack the island and as the invaders 
neared the beach, an enormous army 
headed by a beautiful woman appeared, 
ready to meet the onset. The pirates 
were terrorized by the vision and fled 
back to their boat. One who did make 
it to the beach was even more mortified 
when he learned that there was no such 
army, much less a beautiful woman 
leading it. To this day, Taboganos are 
convinced that it was the Virgin of 
El Carmen who saved them. 



A popular swimming 
hole is the "Bishop's 
Pool," named for Father 
Luque, the founder of 
Taboga. 





Taboganos often light 
candles before the three 
crosses which mark the 
graves of invaders wlio 
attacked the island in 
the early 19th century. 



The Panama Canal Review 



9 



v/nai> ]n a namci 



By Willie K. Friar 



THE ROOSEVELT CANAL, HAN- 
na Locks I, II, and III, the Sea 
ot Hamia and Hanna Dam. Ever hear 
of these places? 

They might well have been the names 
of the Panama Canal, Miraflores, Gatun, 
and Pedro Miguel Locks, and Gatun 
Lake and Dam, except for the consistent 
spirited resistance of Gov. George W. 
Davis, Gov. M. L. Walker, and others 
who followed after them. 

From the time die first shovelful of 
dirt was turned, the Canal administra- 
tion maintained a resolute policy of 
preserving historic geographical names 
despite repeated efforts to change them 
to honor various individuals. 

As early as June 28, 1904, John Bige- 
low, of New York, in a letter carefully 
written in Spencerian script, suggested 
to President Theodore Roosevelt, that 
all of the locks of the Canal be named 
for "the late Senator Hanna, a statesman 
and friend of the Isthmian Canal." He 
also suggested that Gatun Lake be 
called the Hanna Sea, and the port city 
of Cristobal be known "simply as 
Hanna." 

The letter was forwarded to Gov. 
George W. Davis, who, though at that 
time much more concerned with the 
building than with the naming of locks 




and towns, made it quite clear that he 
was not in favor of changing well-known 
local names. Expressing his opinion in a 
letter to the President, he added, "After 
the greatest engineering work of the 
world is accomplished there will be time 
enough, it seems to me, to decide upon 
the names of the ports at its principal 
entrances; the course that was followed 
in respect to the Suez Canal." 

But this was only the beginning of 
efforts to rename the locks and Canal 
Zone towns that continued until recent 
years. 

In April 192S, a joint resolution was 
introduced in the House of Representa- 
tives that Gatun Locks be named to 
honor Maj. Gen. George W. Goethals, 
chief engineer of the Panama Canal 
from 1907 to 1912 and former Governor 
of the Canal Zone; that Pedro Miguel 
be named for John F. Stevens, chief en- 
gineer from 1905 to 1907; and Mira- 
Hores be changed to Sibert to honor 
Brig. Gen. William L. Sibert, division 
engineer of the Atlantic Division, 1907 
to 1914. 

Little Jewel 

The resolution also called for the 
naming of the dam which was known 
as "Alhajuela" for Congressman Martin 
B. Madden, chairman of the Appropria- 
tions Committee, which obtained the 
funds for building it. 

Local sentiment was against all of 
the proposals and the names of the 
locks remained the same, but the name 
of the dam was changed to Madden 
even though a local newspaper con- 
ducted a campaign for retaining the 
historic name, "Alhajuela" which means 
little jewel. 

In resisting the changes. Gov. M. L 
Walker pointed out "It is proposed to 
name Gatun Locks, which were built 
by Sibert, after General Goethals, and 
Miraflores Locks, which were built by 
Mr. S. B. Williamson, after General 
Sibert. General H. F. Hodges, who was 
largely responsible for the design of all 
the Locks is neglected." 

Governor Walker recommended in- 
stead of the suggested change of names 
that a Panama Canal Memorial Hall be 



built in the Canal Zone containing 
tablets which would give the full his- 
tory of American achievement on the 
Isthmus and set forth the part plaved 
by every individual prominently con- 
nected with the work. 

It was proposed in 1928 that the 
name of the Canal be changed to honor 
President Theodore Roosevelt. Gov- 
ernor Walker expressed his disapproval 
of this also and said, "The Panama 
Canal has been so called since the 
French Company first started work. 
The Canal is so known throughout the 
world. To change its name now will 
prove very confusing and for many 
vears, even if the change of name is 
made, the world will continue to refer 
to it as the Panama Canal." 

Culebra Cut 

He mentioned as proof that names 
are not easily changed that in 1915, 
President Wilson signed an Executive 
Order changing the name of Culebra 
Cut, the excavation through the Con- 
tinental Divide, to Gaillard Cut to honor 
Lt. Col. David Gaillard, who was in 
charge of the work there from 1907 to 
1913. He pointed out that the name, 
Culebra, which means snake, has per- 
sisted. It is still used today by many 
residents of the Canal Zone and Panama. 

The Spanish names of the locks are 
geographic ones, already in common 
usage for these sites before the locks 
were built, and looking into how the 
areas happened to get their names leads 
one far back into Isthmian history. In 
the case of Gatun, on the Atlantic side 
of the Isthmus evidence indicates that 
it took its name from the river which 
appears on Spanish maps as early as 
1750. 

On the Isthmus, as in other places, it 
appears that names were first applied 
to rivers and streams, often with a de- 
scriptive adjective to characterize a 
particular body of water. 

This seems true with the Gatun River 
which some believe was named for "el 
gato," the cat, because of its smooth 
running feline quality. (Records show 
that beginning about 1882 the river 
was called the Gatuncillo.) There are 



10 



Spring 1972 



still some local people, however, who 
insist that the name came from "gatu- 
nero," seller of smuggled meat, since 
the area around Gatun was once knowii 
as a place where stolen cattle were 
brought for sale to travelers. 

Of the three locks, the name of Pedro 
Miguel, pronounced "Peter Magill" by 
most Americans living in the Canal 
Zone, arouses the most curiosity and 
provokes numerous arguments and dis- 
cussions. 

Pedro Miguel's Cabin 

One oldtimer reports that he remem- 
bers well the story he heard while still 
a boy that Pedro Miguel was the name 
of a railroad section foreman. There 
was no town there in the old days and 
the stop on the Panama Railroad was 
known simply as "Pedro Miguel's 
Cabin." Others insist that the name was 
originally San Pedro Miguel— St. Peter 
Michael— the name the Spanish gave the 
river which is near the town. 

An 1867 history of the Panama Rail- 
road refers to the river as "a narrow 
tidewater tributarv of the Rio Grande" 
which the railroad crossed on an iron 
bridge. Others say that the area was 
named bv the French to honor a saint 
and then translated into Spanish. 

But further research indicates that 
the name goes back still farther in his- 
torv. Early accounts of the conquista- 
dores in Panama mention a soldier 
named Pedro Miguel, a contemporary 
of De Soto, and a 1729 Spanish map 
shows a hill named Cerro Pedro Miguel 
as well as the river, Rio Miguel. 

Miraflores, which means "look at 
flowers" was not chosen because flowers 
were growing where the Pacific side 
locks are located. It was actually a 
desolate swampland. 

The name dates far back in Isthmian 
histor\' but a check of old records gives 
no clue as to how, why, or when the 
name was first applied to this area. It is 
a common Spanish surname and chances 
are that Miraflores was named for an 
individual during Spanish colonial days. 
There are several South American coun- 
tries with tov\Tis of this name. 

Canal Builders 

Many other place names date far 
back in the history of the Isthmus and 
retaining them in the face of campaigns 
by congressmen and others bent on 
honoring builders of the Canal has not 
been an easy task. 

Most Canal Zone towns are stiU called 
by their original names. There was an 
attempt by a congressman to change the 
historic name of Gamboa to Goethals. 




r^^./Vf"^'*'^^^ 



Lynn Nis\vander, student assistant with the Canal organization, points out a river named 
Miguel on a 1729 map in a book of Spanish maps at the Canal Zone Library. Early Spanish 
maps of Panama show that many local geographic names can be traced far back in the 
history of the Isthmus. A hill named Cerro Pedro Miguel also appears on this map. 



The Panama Canal Review 



11 




Gamboa, the home of the Canal's 
Dredging Division, which first came to 
prominence when the French Company 
began excavation, is the Spanish name 
of a fruit tree of the quince family. It is 
also a well-known surname still found 
today in Panama and Spain. Since the 
tree is not native to Panama, it seems 
likely that the name goes back to some 
of the early Spanish explorers. 

Ancon, an old Pacific side settlement, 
is considered by many to be the most 
sonorous of Canal Zone names. The 
name, which goes back hundreds of 
years in Isthmian history, means anchor 
age. In 1545, Pizarro, seeking to control 
the Isthmus of Panama and its rich 
ports, sent two expeditions from Peru. 
The first pillaged the old city of Pan- 
ama before it was recalled. The second 
was divided into forces, one of which, 
under Rodrigo de Carbajal, landed at 
"Ancon, a small cove 2 leagues from 
Panama." Later, Ancon was particularly 
known for the French hospital located 
there. 

Margarita, on the Atlantic side of 



the Isthmus, got its name from the little 
island which is now Fort Randolph, but 
where the island originally got its name 
is lost in history. 

Next to Colon, on a coral reef, the 
French dumpyed spoil from their canal 
and on this artificial plateau they built 
warehouses, shops, round houses, office 
buildings, and quarters. They named 
this section Christophe Colomb, or 
Christopher Columbus. It was an easy 
step from the French "Christophe" to 
the Spanish "Cristobal." 

The Pacific terminus of the Canal was 
not called Balboa until 1909. The name 
was suggested by the Peruvian Minister 
to Panama, who advanced the idea that 
the southern terminal of the Panama 
Canal should honor the discoverer of 
the Pacific Ocean, just as the northern 
terminal honored the discoverer of the 
new world. Up to that time, the two 
Pacific side settlements at the southern 
end of the Canal were known as Old 
La Boca and New La Boca, which 
means the mouth. 

Some of the new Canal Zone towns 




got their names by popular vote. Among 
these are Curundu, Rainbow City, and 
Los Rios. 

The area now known as Curundu was 
once called Skunk Hollow. But some 
residents decided that it should be 
changed and suggested Jimgle Glen as 
a more fitting name. Others were for 
keeping the name of Skunk Hollow. 

Skunk Glen 

An editorial in The Star & Herald of 
March 18, 1943, was in favor of retain- 
ing the name stating: "Friends of tradi- 
tion and Skunk Hollow need to arouse 
themselves if they want to save the 
name. They deserve encouragement. 
This world tends to become a dreary 
and orthodox place. Whatever piquancy 
and humor is inherent in the name of 
Skimk Hollow should be preserved for 
the coming generations. They, to 
whom the old place has the associations 
of home and friends, cling to the old 
name. They might agree that a rose by 
any other name would smell as sweet 
but not Skunk Hollow." 

A letter to the Panama American 
urged compromise. The writer said: 
"We do not suggest that the warring 
factions compromise by agreeing to 
such a name as Jungle Hollow, although 
something might be said for such a 
name. But we see no reason why every- 
one could not at once agree to the adop- 
tion of the name Skunk Glen. This 
would retain the saltiness of the original 
name and would preserve the memories 
of the oldtimers. At the same time it 
would constitute a decided concession 
to the aesthetes. Let's make it Skimk 
Glen and return to the business of 
winning the war." 

The problem was solved by ballot 
and a headline announced the result, 
"Skunk Glenners Vote Overwhelmingly 
for Name Curundu." Curundu was the 
name of the little river nearby. It is a 
historic name, which has been spelled 
a \'ariety of ways, but the exact meaning 
is not known. 

By Popular Ballot 

The new town of Los Rios was named 
by popular ballot in 1954 with Sibert 
and Alhajuela being considered also as 



12 



Spring 1972 



possible choices. The streets had ab-eady 
been named for local rivers and it was 
decided that it would he fitting to call 
the town, "the rivers." 

Rainbow City was named following 
a contest, sponsored by the Panama 
Canal Review. The name was sug- 
gested because of the pastel or rainbow 
colors of the houses. Even the sewage 
disposal plant is a cheerful pale green. 

Paraiso, near Pedro Miguel Locks, 
which means paradise, was a stop on 
the "dry season trail" between the At- 
lantic and Pacific and early Canal Zone 
legend has it that Sir Henry Morgan 
first saw Old Panama from a hilltop 
near Paraiso. It was also a headquarters 
for one of the working sections of the 
French Canal Company. 

During the 1850's when surveyors 
and engineers were laying out the rail- 
road line, they found a pass which led 
into what F. N. Otis, a few years later, 
described as "the beautiful undulating 
valley of Paraiso, or Paradise, sur- 
rounded by high conical hills where 
Nature in weird profusion seems to have 
expended her choicest wealth." 

Middle of 16th Century 

The Pacific side community of Diablo 
Heights can be traced as far back as 
the middle of the 16th century. Accord- 
ing to Isthmian histories, the narrow 
Isthmus of Panama was terrorized by 
bands of Cimarrones, runaway Negro 
slaves, who preyed upon the treasur. 
trains on the Camino Real. They be- 
came such a threat to life and property 
that the Spanish viceroy sent expedi- 
tions to clean them out. They managed 
to evade their attackers and in 1552 
were granted recognition by the Gov- 
ernor of the Province. 

At that time, they had three main 
villages, one of which was called Diablo 
or Devil. It was located near the present 
site of Diablo Heights. In 1940, the 
Canal Zone director of jx)Sts objected 
to the decision to name the f)ost office, 
which was located there until March 31, 
1961, Diablo Heights pointing out there 
was already considerable confusion over 
Balboa and Quarry Heights which were 
often written as "Q Heights" and 
"B Heights." He suggested Cerro Dia- 
blo which would retain the name but 
put it all in Spanish, but the Governor 
decided to keep the name and Diablo 
Heights it remains. 

Mapmaker's Mistake 

Names sometimes are the result of 
mistakes or misunderstandings. A good 
example of this in the United States 
is Nome, Alaska, which received its 
name because a mapmaker misunder- 



stood the note his supervisor had placed 
on the map. Not knowing the name of 
the place, he had written the question, 
"Name?" and the mapmaker misread it 
and wrote in Nome. 

Darien, which once was the name of 
the entire Isthmus, but now identifies a 
pro\ince of the Republic of Panama, 
was an Indian word misunderstood by 
Balboa. When Balboa arrived at the 
coast of the Isthmus he came upon a 
river whose name the Spaniards phonet- 
ically translated as "Tarona." The tend- 
ency to change the letter "T" to "D" 
changed the name to Dariena and 
Darven. Due to the consistent substitu- 
tion of the letter "i" for the letter "y" 
in words which have the latter in their 
center, it finally became Darien. The in- 
correct name was immortalized in the 
famous although historically inaccurate 
stanza of Keats "Endymion" . . . "Cortez 
with eagle eyes . . . silent on a peak in 
Darien." 

There are still sporadic attempts to 
change the names of the locks, town- 
sites, and streets of the Canal Zone but 
chances seem good that the long-time 
policy of the Canal Zone to maintain 
historical place names will continue. 

Spirited Arguments 

And it is likely that there viill still be 
spirited arguments concerning such 
place names as Red Tank, Empire, Ta- 
bernilla (litrie tavern), Ahorca Lagarto 
(hang an alligator), and Matachin. 

Matachin had already become such 
a subject of discussion that Governor 
Davis took time out from the business of 
running the Canal Zone to discuss it in 
the Canal Record of December 25, 1907. 

He wrote: "It may seem almost heart- 
less to shatter and destroy the beliefs of 
the oldest as well as the youngest Isth- 




mian inhabitants respecting the history 
of the name of Matachin, which is 
known to all Panamanians as that of a 
station on the line of the Panama 
Railroad." 

Although many local people insisted 
that it meant "Kill a Chinaman," the 
Governor went on to debunk the story, 
still told today, that the name denoted 
the site of a camp for Chinese railroad 
workers who committed suicide by 
drowning, hanging and throwing them- 
selves in front of passing locomotives. 

Then referring to a map published in 
1684 "more than 200 years before the 
Chinese tired of life on the Isthmus (if 
they ever did)," he pointed out that a 
place of that name was known to the 
Buccaneers. It may have been the stop- 
ping place where the butcher, whose 
occupation it designates, supplied the 
weary travelers with fresh meat. 

It has been said of Panama that there 
are few other places on earth where so 
much of the history of the civilized 
world has been enacted with so little 
trace of it remaining. But clues are 
there, for the observant, in the names of 
places along the Canal and through- 
out the Isthmus where historical names 
abound. 




The Panama Canal Review 



13 





Up for a breath of fresh air— or to enjoy 
the spectacular view, painter 
Alberto Caballero takes a short break 
from his chore of painting 
the inside of this steel beam on the 
Thatcher Ferry Bridge. 

Tied in a boatswain's chair, a painter 
works on one of the upright steel beams 
high above the Pacific entrance 
of the Canal. 



By Vic Canel 

OUR PHOTOGRAPHER GOT HIGH 
recently. High on the Thatcher 
Ferry Bridge to get some dramatic pic- 
tures of painting crews as thev tackled 
the annual dr\' season project. 

More than 300 feet above the Canal's 
Pacific entrance, he walked the 12-inch- 
wide beams without a hint of acropho- 
bia, as painters worked on the second 
half of the cantilever arch to complete 
the last phase of the .5-year painting 
cycle. 

The bridge is painted in sections: First 
the underside from the east embank- 
ment to the center span; then the under- 
side from the west embankment to the 
center span; then the trolley under the 
bridge; and finally the cantilever arch is 
painted in two installments. 

Each section is given two coats of 
aluminum paint and it takes about 1,050 
gallons-enough to paint about 1,400 
average size bedrooms-should anyone 




be interested in an aluminum bedroom. 
In addition, about 750 gallons of red 
lead are used each vear to prevent 
rusting. 

Preparations for the drv season paint 
job begin in December, when 20 men 
are hired on a temporar\' basis to pre- 
pare the rigging and scaffolding. Then, 
in January, another 30 men aire hired to 
do the chipping, scraping and actual 
painting, which usually is completed 
about the end of April. Annual cost of 
the bridge maintenance is close to a 
quarter of a million dollars. 

Strict safety rules are enforced and 
each workday starts with a safety meet- 
ing. "You only make one mistake up 
there," says Robert E. Budreau, general 
foreman, buildings, who has b^n re- 
sponsible for the job from the start of 
the present 5-year cycle. 

Despite 25- to 35-mile-an-hour winds, 
no worker has ever fallen from the 
bridge, Budreau says— not even a pho- 
tographer. 

4 ^^ 

***** 



14 



Spbing 1972 



Painters Make Striking Pictures 




Traffic across Thatcher Ferry Bridge moves along in two lanes 
nearly 200 feet below as workmen Alvin J. Staples, 
in white T-shirt, and Jos6 G. Gonzilez 
proceed with dry season painting. 



These two men are responsible for 
keeping the bridge shipshape. 
They are veteran Canal employees 
Robert E. Budreau, left, 
general foreman, buildings, and 
Dallas Thornton, 
lead foreman, painter. 




The dramatic photos on these pages are 

the work of Arthur L. Pollack, 

who was snapped by 

a coworker as he walked the 

beams high atop the Thatcher Ferry 

Bridge in search of 

unusual camera angles. 




Silhouetted against a clear dry season sky, 
workers apply aluminum paint 
to a "forty five"— the big 45-degree 
steel beams in the bridge superstructure. 




The Panama Canal Review 



15 




Passing Parade of Ship^ 



GRACEFUL SAILING SHIPS NO 
longer transit the Panama Canal 
with the frequency they did in 1914. 
The little plodding tankers and cargo 
ships that took on coal at Cristobal, and 
made their way stolidly across the Pa- 
cific, have been replaced by 825-foot 
tankers and container ships that travel 
at more than 25 knots. 

Ship traffic through the Panama 
Canal has reflected the progress of the 
world from the horse and buggy age, 
when ships sailed with the wind, to the 
atomic age, when a nuclear power plant 
may be the source of energy. 

Sailing vessels, palatial yachts, sturdy 
tugs, whaling fleets, offshore oil drilling 
rigs and ships on scientific expeditions 
all have been a part of the great stream 
of traffic which has moved through the 
Panama Canal or visited the terminal 
ports during the 57 years that the Canal 
has been opened to world traffic. During 
that time there have been more than 
458,000 transits. 



The war "to make the world safe for 
democracy" was just beginning in 1914 
when the SS Ancon made her initial 
transit through the newly opened 
waterway at Panama. The huge cranes 
Ajax and Hercules, manufactured in Ger- 
many, barely made their way across 
the Atlantic before GeiTnany and Britain 
closed the sea to shipping. Transports 
filled with British troops from down 
under came north as the war began 
and returned as the war ended. 

The Pacific Fleet returned through 
the Canal at the end of hostilities and 
an expedition led by Reai- Adm. Richard 
E. Byrd came south on its way to dis- 
cover the frozen Antarctic. The U.S. 
Navy frigate Canstitntion, launched in 
1797 and famed in history as "Old 
Ironsides," arrived at Cristobal in 1932 
on a public inspection trip to the West 
Coast. Old Ironsides was towed through 
the Canal in 9 hours and 23 minutes 
and spent time in drj'dock in Balboa in 



preparation for the trip to California. 

As the traffic through the Canal grew 
during the years before and after World 
War II, improvements in the Canal 
facilities resulted in channel lighting, 
widening in the Gaillard Cut area, and 
new towing locomotives. 

Almost as important as the first full 
transit of the Canal in 1914 was the 
first nighttime transit of the 665-foot 
bulk carrier Allen D. Christensen early 
in 1966. This was the largest commer- 
cial \essel ever to make the complete 
transit after dark. 

The longest ship to transit the Canal 
was the old German American Line 
cruise ship Bremen that passed through 
the Canal southbound in Februarv 
1939. Her overall length of 936.8 feet 
has never been surpassed. The widest 
ship was the U.S. Missouri which tran- 
sited in September 1952. Her measure- 
ments were 888 feet in length with 
beam of 108 feet. 



■rom. 



«€. 



CSsLTcrt 




' /If 



i 




The passage of 33 vessels of the Pacific Fleet, 30 of them in only 
2 days, July 24 and 25, 1919, constituted the largest operation in the 
Canal up to that date. The ships, many recently from the war zone, 
were handled in groups with a Canal pilot in charge of three de- 
stroyers. Before transit, they took on large orders of coal and fuel oil. 



The USN "Hayes," one of the first catamarans operated by the U.S. 
Navy Sealift Command under the sponsorship of the Naval Research 
Laboratory, passes through en route from California in September 
1971. Constructed specifically to conduct acoustic research for anti- 
submarine warfare application, it has space for bulky equipment. 



16 



Spmng 1972 



»oo 



sit! 



lects Progress of World 




oxxxlc XSxi^x-sy 

One of the most complicated and 
costly transits was made by a fleet of 
inactive floating U.S. Navy drj'docks 
moving from the Pacific to the Atlantic. 
Since they were too wide to fit the locks 
thev were turned on their sides at the 
former Mechanical Division in Balboa 
and towed through the Canal by Pan- 
ama Canal tugs. Even on their sides, 
the drydocks got a clearance in the 
locks chambers of only 6 feet 9 inches. 
All of the five drydocks had to be re- 
turned to a horizontal position in Cris- 
tobal and prepared for sea. 

In recent years, the Panama Canal 
has made efforts to accommodate almost 
any type of vessel that can be fitted into 
or over the locks. Plans were made last 
November to take care of a proposed 
catamaran drilling rig so large that it 
would fit in two lock lanes simultane- 
ously and straddle the control houses as 
it was locked through. The Canal 
authorities were game and gave the 



green light to a U.S. west coast ship 
building corporation that had made 
plans to build the gargantuan vessel. 
The builders, however, have postponed 
plans for the time being. 

Already beginning service are a fleet 
of container ships, some up to 950 feet 
in length that will travel between 
Europe and the Far East at a service 
speed of 26 knots. The first, the Kama- 
kiira Mam of the NYK Line, went 
through in January. 

Not all ships that pass through the 
Panama Canal these days are outsized. 
Recently a \\'hole fleet of mini-freight- 
ers, newest of the growing number of 
small highly automated cargo ships, 
started passing through the waterway 
from Corinto, Nicaragua to New Or- 
leans b\- way of Turbo, Colombia and 
Pensacola, Fla. They measme in at 21.5 
feet in length and have a cargo capacit)' 
of 3,000 tons in containers or bulk cargo. 



Quite a contrast to the record cargo of 
60,391 long tons on board the Arctic 
transiting March 1970. 

Then there was the smallest boat 
ever to transit. Appropriately named 
Ancon II, a shipshape 3-foot-long model 
cruiser went northbound May 23, 1970. 
The radio-controlled craft was guided 
by a chase boat manned by Air Force 
Maj. Kenneth Thomas, her owner- 
builder, and veteran Panama Canal 
Pilot Capt. William T. Lyons. The pas- 
sage through the Canal was guided at 
all times by the Marine Traffic con- 
trollers in Balboa. The Canal's smallest 
customer took more than 12 hours to 
transit and paid 72 cents in tolls. 

Of the world fleet of ships, which 
numbers over 19,000 vessels of 1,000 
gross tons and over, more than 800 are 
too wide to fit into the locks and over 
500 more oversize ships are under 
construction or on order. E. R. 




Officially opening the Panama Canal, August 15, 1914, the old SS 
"Ancon" nears midway point in her 50-miIe journey. The ship had 
been used as a cement carrier during construction days and after 
the Canal was opened was converted into a transport for Canal 
employees. It ran between Cristobal and New York via Haiti. 



United Slates Lines' Lancer class "American Astronaut," one of 16 
mammoth high-speed container ships in the company's fastest tri- 
continent services returns from the Far East to the Port of New 
York. The trim giant transports her full share of the line's inven- 
tory of over 20,000 freight containers filled with general cargo. 



The Panama Canal Review 



17 




The Canal Takes All Types 



A strange craft named "Sea Egg" by its 
owner-skipper John C. Riding, went through 
the Canal in September 1967 on its way 
around the world. The "Sea Egg" has an 
overall length of only 11.9 feet and a 5.3- 
foot beam. 



Round-shaped or egg-shaped 
As long as they are shipshape 




The amphibious jeep "Tortuga" is dwarfed by the tanker "Cristobal" as it is locked 
through Pedro Miguel in May 1955. The "Tortuga," owned by Frank and Helen Schreider 
of Alaska, was en route to the southern tip of South America via highway and sea. The jeep 
was given the same service as a full fledged commercial ship up to and including a pilot. 
Capt. Robert Rennie sits on top of the small seagoing vehicle for lack of a bridge. 




Assisted by a Panama Canal tug, a large Coast Guard navigational buoy known as a LNB, 
moves through Miraflores Locks. It represents a new generation of highway markers for 
marine traffic. The hull supports a .38-foot tower which has a 7,500 candlepower light. 




One of the most complicated transits was made by a fleet of floating U.S. Navy drjdoeks 
moving from the Pacific to the Atlantic. Too wide to 6t in the locks, they were 
turned on their sides and towed through the Canal. When they reached Cristobal, 
they were righted and again made ready to put out to sea and continue their journey. 




Dwarfed by merchant ship "Neder Elbe," the 
36-inch SS ".\ncon II" chugs north through 
Miraflores Locks. The radio controlled 3-foot 
model cruiser is the smallest vessel to transit. 



18 



Spring 1972 




Three pieces of floating equipment— one drilling rig and two deep sea tWIling ships with rigs 
towering from 204 to 208 feet above the waterline arrived here in February 1970. They 
were the "Glomar Challenger," one of the newest and largest of the vessels conducting ocean 
bottom research; the "Big John," an oil drilling rig being towed to Borneo from Texas; and 
the giant deep water drilling vessel "Navigator," which was en route from Texas to Australia. 



Under tow of a seagoing tug, the derrick 
barge "Choctaw" squeezes through Mira- 
flores Locks with onlv 2 feet to spare. It 
made its first transit .\ugust 9, 1969, on its 
way to a drilling project near Australia. 





One of the most unusual ships to transit the Canal was the American flag cable ship "Long 
Lines," the largest cable laying and repair ship in the world. It is the first commercially 
owned and operated cable laying ship sailing under the flag of the United States. 



Chugging along through Gaillard Cut is the 
side paddlewheel steam tug "Eppleton 
Hall," one of the last survivors of her type. 




A Russian cruise liner "Shota Rustaveli" ties up at Balboa with British cruise passengers 
aboard. The vessel was one of five Soviet ships that transited the Canal one weekend early 
in March of this year. She has made several trips through the waterway in recent months. 



The Spanish training ship "Juan Sebastian 
Elcano" with more than 100 cadets aboard, 
moves north through Miraflores Locks. 



The Panama Canal Review 



19 




The U.S. Navy frigate "Constitution," 
launched in 1797 and famed in the history 
of the United States as "Old Ironsides," 
arrived at Cristobal the evening of Decem- 
ber 22, 1932, from Washington, D.C., via 
Guantanamo. After a 4-day stay at Cristo- 
bal, the vessel transited on December 27. 




Lashed to the U.S. "Bittern," the German 
Submarine U-88 moves through Pedro Mi- 
guel Locks. One of five surrendered sub- 
marines taken to the United States for ex- 
hibition, it arrived at Cristobal August 6, 
1919, en route to San Diego for display. 




The New Zealand transport "Willocra" dis- 
played this strange zebra-like camouflage 
when it went through Gaillard Cut in 1919 
with a load of New Zealand troops. This 
type of protective painting seems strange 
today as methods of camouflage have 
changed radically since World War I. 




Submarines C-1 to C-5 comprising the First 
Division of the U.S. Navy submarine flotilla 
which had been stationed at Cristobal since 
December 12, 1913, were placed in drydock 
in the east chamber of the upper level 
of Gatun Locks Monday, March 9, 19H. 




Four catchers of the Norwegian whaling 
fleet that transited in 1951, lock down 
together in Pedro Miguel. The 14 catchers 
and their 22,000-ton mother ship, "Thor- 
shovi," transited October 17. They carried 
565 men. The mother ship with a crew 
of 285 and each catcher a crew of 20. 




U.S. Naval personnel and a number of their 
dependents perch on the deck of the U.S. 
Navy's newest Polaris Missile submarine 
"Daniel Boone" as it passes through Mira- 
flores Locks. The nuclear powered sub was 
the first of its type to use the Panama Canal. 




The NS "Savannah," the world's first nuclear powered merchant ship, arrived at Cristobal 
September 16, 1962, for a history-making transit of the Canal en route to the Seattle World's 
Fair. Her nuclear reactor has the capacity to take her around the world 14 times without 
'•^fueling. She was built by the United States to demonstrate peaceful use of atomic energy. 




The "La Valley," the first steam vessel to 
pass from ocean to ocean through the Canal 
leaves Miraflores lower chamber January 7, 
191 4. before the Canal was officially opened. 



20 



Spring 1972 




V 



V? 




The Belgian flag ship "Temse," the largest commercial vessel to transit since the passenger 
liner "Bremen," which still holds the record, moves on her way from Rotterdam to Chile in 
December 1971. She measures 875 feet in length and has a beam of 104 feet. Traveling in 
ballast, she paid only $22,333.68 in tolls. She was en route to Peru to pick up bulk ore. 



The North German Lloyd trans-Atlantic 
liner "Bremen," the largest commercial 
vessel to transit, moves through Pe- 
dro Miguel Locks. Tolls were $15,243. 








Two Italian passenger liners pass in Gatun Lake. The Lloyd Tries- 
tino Line "Galileo Galilei," in the foreground, is a 27,906-ton ship 
that makes regular transits through the Canal carrying about 1,500 
passengers on round-the-world voyages. The Italian Line "Leo- 
nardo da Vinci," in the background, has made only one transit. 



Breaking the Canal cargo record for the second time, the super 
carrier "Arctic" moves south through Miraflores Locks with a cargo 
of 60,391 long tons of coal. The "Arctic" measures 848.8 feet in 
length and 105.85 in beam and used the maximum draft allowance 
of 39 feet 6 inches on this trip. She was carrying coal to Japan. 




Looking like a ship without a superstructure, the "St. John Carrier," 
one of the world's largest newsprint barges, lies at dock at Balboa. 



The British flag ship "Diklara," a new type container ship, made her 
first trip through the Canal last November on her maiden voyage. 



The Panama Canai. Review 



21 



Shipping 
Notes 

Cruise Ship "Hamburg" 

THE NEWEST WEST GERMAN 
passenger liner TS Hamburg has 
made five trips through the Panama 
Canal this \ear and will make one more 
at the end of June before her present 
cruise season is completed. She is the 
fourth German flag vessel to carry the 
name Hamburg since the turn of the 
century. 

The 24-million dollar luxury liner, 
the flagship of the German Atlantic 
Line, was launched at the Howaldts- 
werke-Deutsche Werft AG shipyard in 
Hamburg in 1968. 

Known for the amount of space set 
aside for both public and private rooms, 
she has 319 spacious cabins including 
20 deluxe apartments for a full com- 
plement of cruise passengers totaling 
some 600. 

The sleek vessel has a cruising speed 
of 23 knots. Her unusual fuimel sup- 
ports a 32-foot diameter circular plate 
designed to lift fumes and smoke up 
and away from the sun and sports 
decks. 

The "Other Woman" 

^Vhen the winter winds blow up 
north and the trade winds blow in the 
tropics, yachts and other small boats 
converge by the dozens on the Panama 
Canal. There have been an unusual 
number of pleasure craft through the 
Canal this year, some of them in the 
million dollar class and others strictly 
on a shoestring. Some are being used 
just to transport their owners from here 
to there, and it is a good way to go if 
one happens to like the open sea in a 
small boat. 

One of these was the Other Woman, 
a fitting name for a sailing craft being 
used by her owner for a 2-year trip 
around the world without wife and 
family. Canadian Douglas Reed, with 
a crew of four, arrived at the Canal in 
February- from the Bahamas aboard 
the 39-foot auxiliary sailing yacht. The 
craft made the transit and continued on 
her 28,000-mile journey bv way of the 
Galapagos and the South Seas. It is the 



CANAL COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC BY NATIONALITY OF 

VESSELS 

First Half Fiscal Year 



1972 



1971 



1961-65 



No. of 

Nationality transits 

Belgian 86 

British 708 

Chilean 63 

Chinese, Nat'l 78 

Colombian 121 

Cjpriot 47 

Danish 199 

French 94 

German, West 458 

Greek 382 

Italian 135 

Japanese 791 

Liberian 827 

Netherlands 239 

Nicaraguan 57 

Norwegian 594 

Panamanian 454 

Peruvian 87 

Philippine 44 

South Korean 42 

Soviet 65 

Swedish 193 

United States 519 

Yugoslavian 43 

All others 311 



Tom 

of cargo 

241,539 

5,653,964 

499,369 

723,690 

262,830 

328,429 

1,012,236 

418,361 

2,003,169 

4,120,243 

922,839 

5,284,992 

10,930,306 

1,423,289 

106,793 

7,201,090 

1,981,516 

588,082 

3.32,415 

231,575 

422,459 

1,327,234 

3,649,546 

.352,896 

1,534,717 



No. of 

transits 

52 

768 

82 

75 

107 

108 

233 

124 

520 

274 

112 

710 

751 

240 

52 

589 

423 

87 

52 

34 

50 

234 

680 

44 

390 



Ton) 

of cargo 

148,539 

7,210,259 

770,444 

696,617 

280,146 

746,285 

1,058,567 

518,233 

2,453,782 

3,751,158 

717,665 

6,745,230 

12,614,997 

1,365,557 

92,391 

7,990,290 

1,912,895 

578,220 

451,,528 

248,259 

320,642 

1,625,259 

4,267,046 

619,868 

2,525,306 



Avg. No. 
transits 

22 
632 

64 

41 
129 

154 
66 

558 
316 

97 
433 
458 
294 

28 
695 
221 

58 

33 

4 

6 

181 

877 

7 

257 



Avg. tons 
of cargo 

77,724 

4,124,.334 

451,191 

.301,600 

209,189 

725,383 

364,357 

1,687,827 

3,077,249 

561,167 

2,542,668 

4,416,239 

1,346,865 

41,772 

5,078,587 

959,816 

296,697 

135,090 

24,027 

48,219 

1,026,269 

5,259,746 

53,543 

608,595 



Total 6,637 51,553,579 6,791 59,709,183 5,631 33,418,154 

TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES 

First Half Fiscal Year 



Trade routes— (Large commercial vessels, 300 net tons or over) 1972 

United States Intercoastal 145 

East coast of United States and South America 452 

East coast of United States and Central America 311 

East coast of United States and Far East 1,433 

United States/Canada east coast and Australasia 187 

Europe and west coast of United States/Canada 399 

Europe and South America 529 

Europe and Australasia £34 

All other routes 2 847 



Avg. No. 

transits 

1971 1961-65 



156 
566 
330 

1,706 
217 
484 
594 
249 

2,489 



231 

1,208 

241 

1,133 

171 

459 

592 

176 

1,420 



Total trafiic 6,637 6,791 5,631 

MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS 



Vessels of 300 net tons or over— (Fiscal years) 



Transits 



iTolU fin thousands of dollars) 



Month 



First Half 

1972 1971 

July i_i94 1174 

August 1J97 1J76 

September 1491 i_io8 

October i,068 1,167 

November 954 1,064 

December i_023 1,102 

January j ,19 



February 1144 

March 

April 

May 

June 



1,295 
1,214 
1,237 
1,220 



Avg. No. 
transits 
1961-65 

960 
949 
908 
946 
922 
946 
903 
868 
1,014 
966 
999 
954 



First Half 
1972 

8,016 
8,513 
8,418 
7,242 
6,645 
7,267 



Totals for fiscal year 

1 Before deduction of any operating expenses. 



1971 
8,118 

8,221 
7,979 
8,095 
7,362 
7,690 
8,157 
7,815 
8,929 
8,349 
8,422 
8,243 



Average 

tolls 
1961-65 

4,929 
4,920 
4,697 
4,838 
4,748 
4,955 
4,635 
4,506 
5,325 
5,067 
5,232 
5,013 



14,020 11,3.35 97,380 58,865 



22 



Spring 1972 



PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES SHIPPED THROUGH THE CANAL 

(All cargo figures in long tons) 

Pacific to Atlantic 

First Half Fiscal Year 

S-Yr. Atjg. 

Commodity 1972 1971 1961-65 

Manufachires of iron and Steel 4,348,321 3,122,147 466,312 

Lumber and products 2,459,417 2,249,879 1,785,375 

Sugar __ 2,049,777 2,056,415 1,235,175 

Ores various 1,904,119 3,227,970 519,996 

Petroleum and products 1,731,721 1,030,230 1,024,347 

Fishmeal _ - 883,880 680,844 N.A. 

Metals, various 661,657 794,595 566,481 

Food in refrigeration (excluding bananas) 582,861 587,121 394,842 

Pulpwood 538,071 590,363 249,504 

Bananas 524,546 505,408 565,876 

Sulfur 405,538 206,373 35,897 

Autos, trucks, accessories and parts 374,115 244,603 8,147 

Molasses 347,556 246,515 80,782 

Canned food products 321,705 330,968 517,232 

Salt 317.247 164,864 1,645 

All other 4,979,364 5,349,853 7,381,658 

Total 22,429,895 21,388,148 14,883,269 

Atlantic to Pacific 

First Half Fiscal Year 

S-Yr. Avg. 

Commodity 1972 1971 1961-65 

Petroleum and products 6,756,597 6,222,106 5,484,146 

Coal and coke 6,145,377 11,618,552 2.925,019 

Soybeans 1,950,607 2,140,465 735,645 

Phosphate 1,936,286 1,997,012 1,046,645 

Ores various 1,515,296 1,275,943 147,988 

Com' 1,382,153 2,269,647 636,706 

Wheat 960,417 626,096 335,771 

Suear 709,746 1,359.027 516,556 

Metal, scrap 675,010 1,771,295 1,527,264 

Manufactures of iron and steel 600,334 965,651 737,644 

Sorghum 455,315 1,352,348 N.A. 

Chemicals, miscellaneous 422,509 466,818 318,745 

Paper and products 381,768 435,-345 225,987 

Autos, trucks, accessories, and parts .303,992 314,744 160,582 

Caustic soda 303,082 176,850 N.A. 

All other 4,625,195 5,329,1.36 3,736,187 

Total 29,123,684 38,.321,035 18,534,885 

CANAL TRANSITS - COMMERCIAL AND U.S. GOVERNMENT 

First Half Fiscal Year 



1972 



1971 



Avg. No. 

transits 

1961-65 



Atlantic Pacific 

to to 

Pacific Atlantic Total Total Total 

Commercial vessels: 

Oceangoing 3,316 3,321 6,637 6,791 5,631 

Small! 190 137 327 247 286 

Total Commercial 3,506 3,458 6,964 7,038 5,917 

U.S. Government vessels: * 

Oceangoing 106 100 206 311 124 

Small! 34 53 87 67 82 

Total commercial and 

U.S. Government 3,646 3,611 7,2.57 7,416 6,123 

1 Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons. 

2 Vessels on which tolls are credited. Prior to July 1, 1951, Government-operated ships transited 
tree. 



PANAMA CANAL TRAFFIC 

STATISTICS FOR 6 MONTHS OF 

FISCAL YEAR 1972 

TRANSITS (Oceangoing Vessels) 

1972 1971 

Commercial 6,637 6,791 

U.S. Government 206 311 

Free 31 60 

Total 6,874 7.162 

TOLLS* 

Commercial ___S46, 133,275 $47,483,685 

U.S. Government 1,343,557 1,886,257 

Total___S47.476,832 $49,369,942 
CARGO" " (Oceangoing) 

Commercial 51,553,579 59,709,183 

U.S. Government 821,399 1.345,737 
Free 41,532 90,215 

Total. __ 52,416,510 61,145,135 

° Includes tolls on all vessels, oceangoing 
and smalt. 

°° Cargo figures are in long tons. 



first attempt by a Canadian registered 
yacht with a Canadian captain to circle 
the globe. 

Soviet Vessels 

Russian flagships are not new to the 
Panama Canal but there was a surge 
of them early in March when three 
freighters, one scientific trawler, and a 
cruise ship with more than 600 pas- 
sengers passed through the waterway. 

The passenger vessel Shota Rustaveli, 
owned by the Black Sea Steamship Co. 
and chartered by the Charter Travel 
Club of London, arrived in Balboa 
March 11 with a crew of 354 and 665 
passengers who had boarded the ship 
in Australia. The vessel tied up in Bal- 
boa in the morning and the passengers 
went sightseeing. The ship transited 
northbound in the afternoon en route 
to Southampton via Curacao. 

Also transiting northbound the same 
day vvas the Vtjsokogorsk, a cargo ship 
traveling from Manchurian ports to 
Cuba. 

Three of the vessels went through 
the Canal almost at the same time 
March 11. In fact they met in Mira- 
flores Locks. They were the freighter 
Novovohjnsk traveling from New Zea- 
land to Dunkirk with wool and general 
cargo; the Akademik Knipovich, a 
Soviet government-owned scientific 
fishing trawler en route from Val- 
paraiso, Chile, to Las Palmas, Canary 
Islands; and the Parkhomenko, south- 
bound from New York to Guayaquil. 

C. Fernie & Co. represents all the 
vessels except the Parkhomenko which 
was handled on this transit by Pacific 
Ford. 



The Panama Canal Review 



23 



Culinary 
Capers 



By Eunice Richard 




AS THE U.S. ARMY TROPICAL 
Survival School in the Canal Zone 
has learned, there is very little growing 
or living in the jungles of Panama that 
cannot be used as food. 

Some of the animals, vegetables, and 
fruits may even be used to make gour- 
met dishes, Mrs. Gladys R. Graham, an 
enterprising young American housewife 
discovered some 25 years ago when she 
came to the Isthmus and spent several 
years living in the Interior of Panama. 

She learned to prepare a number of 
succulent dishes with native foods and 
before she left the Isthmus, wrote and 
published a cookbook, "Tropical Cook- 
ing," which, sadly, is no longer in cir- 
culation. The Canal Zone Library has 
only one copy left and it is dog-eared, 
worn, and stained from years of use bv 
carious cooks. But it is to be published 
again soon by the Isthmian Anthro- 
pological Society and will be on sale 
later this vear. 

Meanwhile, Culinary Capers offers a 
few of Mrs. Graham's more unusual 
recipes. Perhaps some Isthmian house- 
wife will look for the ingredients in the 
local Panama market or have her hus- 
band go hunting in the jungle if only to 
give her family a change from frozen 
foods. 

As Mrs. Graham says, one day some- 
one will bring home a freshly killed 
armadillo and swear that he has heard 
it is edible. It is! 

ARMADILLO 

In Brazil the armadillo is often 
cleaned, seasoned, and baked in his own 
shell with a generous portion of minced 
parsley added to the rest of the season- 
ing. In the southwest of the United 
States the meat, at its best during the 
winter months, is treated much the 
same as raccoon and opossum. It can 
be successfully fried like chicken or 
roasted. In any event BE SURE to 
remove the kernels (glands) from under 
the forelegs and in the fleshy part of the 
hindlegs and back. There are seven of 
them. Do it as soon as possible. 



ROAST ARMADILLO 

1 armadillo 

2 tablespoons salt 

/2 teaspoon black pepper 
1 onion 

3 carrots 

1 cup broth or bcniillon 

Clean armadillo and remove fat. Par- 
boil 1 hour in water with other ingredi- 
ents, except the broth. Place in a roast- 
ing pan, add the broth and roast un- 
covered 2 hours at 375 degrees. Serves 
eight. 

CONEJO 

If there are no hunters in the family, 
most people can get this excellent meat 
in the Panama market if one talks to a 
butcher and places an order. Conejo 
means rabbit in English. But the Pan- 
amanian conejo is more of a rodent, 
with longer hairless tail, head like a rat 
and small ears. He is a member of the 
kangaroo family and grows up to -30 or 
40 pounds. The tender white meat is 
somewhat dry and should be larded or 
roasted in the skin to pweserve the 
juices. Clean the conejo and stuff with 
apple or sausage and apple dressing. 
Roast at 350 degrees until tender. Baste 
with orange juice or wine. 

CONEJO PINTADO 

Mrs. Graham says that the conejo pin- 
tado is not the same animal as conejo for 
it refers to the South American Paca. 
The meat is white and sweet. Roast him 
whole, stuck with cloves and basted with 
orange juice and your family and guests 
will want to desert the meat markets 
and take to the woods for provender. 

BREADFRUIT 

This delicious fruit or vegetable is 
plentiful in Panama but few people 
seem to use it. Mrs. Graham says it is 
more popular in song and stor\- than it 
is on tables in Central America, but that 
may be the loss of those who do not 



Tropical 

Treats 



24 



Spring 1972 



eat it. If potato is not available, bread- 
fruit is a delightful substitute. Some 
oldtimers prefer it to potatoes. It has a 
tangv', tantalizing piney fragrance. 

She sa\s there are several \va> s to 
prepare breadfmit. Some insist it should 
be boiled when it is mature but still 
green. They prefer it either hot, mashed 
like potatoes, or boiled, sliced, dipped 
in beaten egg, and fried. Others insist it 
should be allowed to ripen until it is a 
rich brown and just turning soft. Then 
they bake it whole, exactly like potato, 
and remove the seed before bringing it 
steaming hot to the table. There its 
sweet balsam flavor calls only for a little 
salt and pepper and lots of butter. 
Cooked this way, the breadfruit should 
be put into an oven at 375 to 400 
degrees for 45 minutes to an hour. The 
next day it can be diced and used in 
stews or soups. 

CHAYOTE 

One of the most versatile of the Isth- 
mian fniits and vegetables is the cha- 
yote also knowm as chocho. Mrs. Graham 
says it is the answer to a cook's prayer. 
If one wants a root to serve instead of 
potatoes, boil it. If one needs a green 
salad, peel the fruit and shred it with 
other green stuff. If you want a substi- 
tute for spinach, strip the leaves from 
the vine. The entire chayote plant can 
be used in one way or another. 

The fruit, something like summei 
squash in flavor, is slightlv pear-shaped 
and a delicate green, with slight grooves 
along the sides. Some are spiny, and 
some, when past the youngest stages of 
tenderness, have a bit of a center seed 
and a few root sprouts showing at the 
bottom. Thev run from the size of a 
fist to half again as large and all parts 
are edible except the sldn. 

FRIED CHAYOTE 

Peel three chaxotes and cut in V2-inch 
slices crosswise. Dip in beaten egg, then 
in cracker crumbs and fry to a golden 
brown in hot fat. Drain on paper, then 
sprinkle salt and pepper and keep in the 
oven until time to serve. Serve as soon 
as possible. It is superior to eggplant. 

Mrs. Graham said that it is excellent 
stuff^ed also and gave this recipe. 

Wash and simmer three large cha- 
yotes till tender (about 40 minutes). 
Cut in half, scoop out the pulp and mash 
it with salt, pepper, grated cheese and 
a small amount of grated onion. Top 
with more grated cheese or buttered 
toasted crumbs. Pop into the oven for 
10 or 15 minutes and serve. 




Breadfruit has been a popular food in the Western Hemisphere ever since 1793 when bread- 
fruit trees were brought from Tahiti to the West Indies by Captain Bligh of "Mutiny on the 
Bounty" fame. The breadfruit is one of the many trees introduced to the Isthmus from the 
West Indies. A large specimen of the tree is located on Gorgas Road in the Canal Zone. 




These delicate green chavotes are among the many tropical vegetables and fruits found at 
Chinese gardens in the Canal Zone. All parts of the chayote are edible except the skin. 



The Panama Canal Review 



25 




HOW TO OPEN A COCONUT 

Those who are new to the tropics will 
find there are two kinds of coconuts in 
the markets. In addition to the ripe coco- 
nut well known in the north, there is the 
green coconut, which in Panama is 
called a "pipa." Mrs. Graham recom- 
mends whacking off the top with a ma- 
chete and drinking the clear water inside 
with a straw. One can pour it into a 
pitcher and serve it as a beverage. It is 
the purest beverage available and 
always cool. If the pipa is green, one can 
scoop out some of the soft rich meat 
just developing inside the shell. As the 
meat hardens, the water takes on more 
of a coconut flavor and by the time the 
thick husk is golden brown on the 
outside, the water has become milk. 

Mrs. Graham had no problem re- 
moving the meat from a ripe coconut. 
She said to punch the eyes in with an 
ice pick or similar tool, drain off^ the 
liquid and then tap briskly around and 
around the shell with a hammer. It will 
split appro.ximately in half. Another way 
is to put the whole coconut in a hot 
oven for 10 minutes, tap with the ham- 
mer and the meat will all come out in 
one or two pieces, ready to use. Be 
careful not to lose the liquid. 

COCONUT CREAM 

Grate all the meat from one whole 
coconut into a pan or bowl and pour 
about a quart of hot water over the pulp. 
When the liquid has cooled just a little, 
stir it and mash against the sides of the 
bowl with a spoon or your hands. The 
pulp may be squeezed out by hand or 
the whole thing strained through a 
cloth. After it has been cooled and pos- 
sibly chilled overnight in the refriger- 
ator, the top cream can be whipped and 
used instead of whipped cream. 

CfflCKEN IN COCONUT 

Mrs. Graham says this is a Philippine 
dish and it sounds wonderful for a 
tropical treat, glamorous and tastv. 
1 young chicken 
salt, pepper 

1 large or several small coconuts 
Biscuit dough 

Parboil the chicken about 25 minutes, 
then disjoint it. With a sharp heavy knife 
or small saw, cut off the top of the coco- 
nut neatly. Pour the milk into a bowl 
and with a fork score and partially shred 
the meat that clings to the shell. Salt 
and pepper the chicken heavily, rubbing 
the seasonings into the flesh; pack the 
pieces tightly into the coconut shell. 
Add the shreds of meat and milk. Re- 
place the top and seal it with biscuit 



26 



Spring 1972 



dough. Bake in a moderate oven 1 hour. 
Instead of one large coconut, several 
small ones can be used to serve each 
guest individually. 

PEJIBAYE OR PIVA 

This is another good thing that grows 
on a palm tree in the tropics. In the 
local markets or along the side of the 
road to the Interior are found huge 
clusters of red and yellow fruits in 
bunches like grapes, each fruit about an 
inch and a half through. They are the 
fruit of a palm tree growing fairly com- 
monlv throughout Central America. 
Mrs. Graham recommends that they be 
boiled for 30 minutes in sea water or 
salted water. They are as good as sweet 
potatoes or chestnuts and are well 
adapted to meat and poultry stuffings 
and as snacks with cold drinks. 

PAPAYA 

Mrs. Graham says that most people 
have to develop a taste for papaya, a 
most healthful fruit, which also is used 
as a meat tenderizer. She says that many 
people prefer the red or pink papaya 
to the \ellow. There are some more 
stronglv flavored with pepsin than 
others. If you get the fruit while it is 
still half-green, "score" it lengthwise in 
a half dozen places using the tines of a 
fork. The strong tasting milk will ooze 
right out and leave the bled fruit much 
milder. But remember that the milk is 
.1 stomach aid and if there is a dyspeptic 
in the house, give it to him with all the 
healing pepsin in his portion. 

If there is an unusually tough piece 
of meat to stew or pot roast, dice a 
couple of 2-inch pieces of green or 
nearly ripe papaya or a portion of a 
large leaf right in with the meat and 
seasonings. It won't flavor anything but 
it will take the toughness and determi- 
nation right out of the meat fibers. Or 
wrap the meat in a couple of washed 
green papaya leaves and leave it in the 
refrigerator for a few hours. 

BAKED PAPAYA 

Papaya is great just as it is served 
cold like a melon but it also is good as 
a vegetable. Mrs. Graham says to cut 
mature but green papaya into individual 
portions. Take out the seeds but don't 
peel it. Dot with butter, sprinkle with 
sugar and cinnamon, bake in a casserole 
or pan with Jz inch of water in the 
bottom for 3.5 minutes in a moderate 
oven. Some people substitute lemon 
juice and salt for sugar and spice. Others 
insist that a sprinkle of grated cheese 
adds zest and sparkle. 




Chayote, pineapple, yucca, coconut, and many other familiar and not so familiar vegeta- 
bles and fruits are available for the creative cook to adapt to her favorite recipe. 




The Panama Canal Review 



27 




More Than Nine Million Gallons of Suds 
Stream From Panama Breweries Each Year 




A KEEN TASTE FOR FOAMY 
beer has made brewing one of 
Panama's largest industries. 

Two official statistics suffice to pro- 
vide an indication of the size of the beer 
industry and its role in the national 
economy: 

In 1970, beer sales in the Republic, 
which has a population of 1.4 million 
inhabitants, amounted to 36,099,190 
liters (approximately 9.5 million gal- 
lons). That same year, the industry paid 
$2,913,500 into the National Treasury 
in production ta.\es alone. Ten years 
ago, the figure was 20,270,358 liters 
(just over 5 million gallons). 

Four breweries, two of which are 
subsidiaries, account for Panama's beer 
production. The oldest and largest is 
Cerveceria Nacional, S.A. (National 
Brewery, Inc.), whose subsidiary, Cer- 
veceria Chiricana, S.A., operates in 
David, Chiriqui Province. The other 
parent brewery is Cerveceria del Baru, 
S.A. (Baru Brewery, Inc.), which was 
established in David and subsec(uently 
set up a subsidiary in Panama City, 
Cerveceria Panama, S.A., that operates 
the company's main plant. 

It may come as a surprise to many 
people that the brewing industry in 



By Luis C. Noli 

Panama will mark its 63d anniversary 
this year. 

Thirty-five Panamanian and Amer- 
ican investors joined in launching the 
country's first brewery— the Panama 
Brewing and Refrigerating Company— 
on October 15, 1909. The first Panama- 
made beer, named for Balboa, the dis- 
coverer of the Pacific Ocean, was put 
on the market on September 1, 1910. 

Some of the country's most prominent 
names— Duque, Preeiado, de Obarrio, 
Espinosa— were associated with that first 
brewery. An American, Theodore Mc- 
Ginnis, was appointed general manager 
—and he proved the company's best 
public relations man. He became so 
identified with the new beer, that he 
came to be known as the Duke of Bal- 
boa. There is a stor\' that he and his 
wife went on a European tour in the 
early 1930's and everywhere were re- 
ceived with special deference— he was 
signing the hotel registers as the Duke 
and Duchess of Balboa. 

The Balboa Brewery, as the pioneer 
company became popularly known, was 
alone in the field until 1926, when the 
Atlantic Brewing and Refrigerating 
Company was founded in Colon bv an- 
other group of Panamanian and Amer- 



28 



Spring 1972 



ican investors. The new conipanv, too, 
got its popular name from its product 
brand— Atlas beer. It soon shifted oper- 
ations to Panama City. 

The man in the forefront was Henri 
Dejan, a former employee of United 
Fniit Co. With him were such promi- 
nent Panamanian bvisinessmen as Car- 
los Ele1:a and Pedro J. Ameglio as well 
as some well-known Americans, Ernest 
C. Fearon, Bert L. Atwater and Theo- 
dore A. Aanstoos. 

A third brewery— the German Pa- 
cific Brewery— appeared on the scene 
in 1927. Its beer was named Milwaukee. 
Again, popular usage of the name was 
such that the company eventualh' 
changed its corporate designation to 
Milwaukee Brewen'. Oscar Teran was 
the first chairman of the board. Among 
the compan\'s founders were members 
of the Herbrugei- family. 

The three breweries competed fierce- 
ly. So fierceK-, in fact, that bv 1938 
it became evident to the directors of 
the three companies that there was only 
one way out— a merger. Negotiations 
were completed and on March 7, 1939, 
the Cerveceria Naciional, S.A., came 
into being. The merger brought to- 
gether the country's most powerful 
businessmen, making the new com- 
pany one of the most solid firms in 
the Republic. 

One prominent Panamanian name— 
Duque— has been associated through 
three generations with the country's 
brewing industry since its start. Jose 
Gabriel Duque was among the founders 
of the first brewery, the Panama Brew- 
ing and Refrigerating Company and, in 
fact, was its first president; his eldest 
son, T. Gabriel Duque, served as Pres- 
ident of the Cerveceria Nacional from 
1943 until his death in 1965; another 
son, Alejandro A. Duque, St., is the 
incumbent Vice President of the Board 
of Directors; and a grandson, Alejandro 
A. Duque, Jr., is the incumbent Assist- 
ant General Manager. 

In 1957, Cerveceria Nacional com- 
pleted construction of a new plant at 
what is now the intersection of Via 
Bolivar (the downtown portion of the 
Transisthmian Highway) and the re- 
cently opened Via Ricardo J. Alfaro. 
With a production capacity of 30 mil- 
lion liters a year, Cerveceria Nacional 
manufactures Balboa, Atlas and Tap 
beers; it also manufactures Canada Dry 
beverages, soft drinks and Malta Vigor, 
a malt extract. 

The present officers of Cerveceria Na- 
cional are Dr. Roberto Aleman, Pres- 
ident; Alejandro A. Duque, Sr., Vice 
President; Rodolfo F. Herbruger, Treas- 




Above: The National Brewery's plant on the Transisthmian Highway. On opposite 
page: Panama Brewery in San Cristobal Industrial Park. 



urer; Alfredo Aleman, Jr., Secretary; 
Alberto Arias E., Assistant Treasurer; 
and Samuel Lewis Galindo, General 
Manager. Other members of the board 
are Raiil Arias, Antonio Zubieta, Juan 
B. Arias, Roberto Heurtematte and 
Enrique Jimenez, Jr. 

Cerveceria del Barii, S.A., manufac- 
turers of Panama and Cristal beers, was 
founded in David in 1958 and began 
operations in that city in July 1959. 
A year ago, the bulk of its operations 
was transferred to its handsome new 
plant at San Cristobal Industrial Park, 
off the Transisthmian Highway, and its 
subsidiary, Cerveceria Panama, S.A., 
was organized. The production capacity 
of the new plant is 10 million liters a 
year. Besides beer, Cerveceria del Bani, 
S.A., manufactures Polaris beverages. 

The company's board of officers in- 
cludes Harry Strunz, Jr., President; 



Eduardo Gonzalez, First Vice President; 
Raul G. Paredes, Second Vice President; 
J. J. Vallarino, Jr., Treasurer; Aristides 
Abadia, Secretary; and Bolivar Vallari- 
no and Carlos Eleta, Directors. J. J. 
V^Ularino, Jr., is also the General 
Manager. 

Man's taste for beer dates back to 
earliest history. There is recorded evi- 
dence that in Mesopotamia 6,000 years 
ago, beer was made with a specially- 
baked bread which was mashed with a 
barley malt and allowed to ferment. 
Beer also was drunk in ancient Eg\pt, 
Greece and Rome. Cuneiform writings 
on a clay tablet found in ancient 
Nineveh indicate that beer was among 
the provisions on Noah's Ark. 

Today, the popularity of beer is en- 
hanced by improved brewing processes. 
Consumption figures are evidence that 
Panama's product is no exception. 





Chemists test every step of the brewing process. Some 350 tests are carried out before 
the beer reaches the consumer. 



The Panama Canal Revie'w 



29 



Panama Beer Industry 
In Sixty-third Year 





Mailing barley, the basic ingredient of beer, 
is imported from Europe, Canada and the 
United States. A special type of rice grown 
in Panama is used as a cereal adjunct. 



In the brewhouse, the ground malt and rice are first cooked separately in huge kettles. The 
malt mash is known as wort, which after mixing with the cooked rire, is boiled with hops. 
After the boiling process, the hopped wort goes through a strainer to separate the hops 
from the wort which is transferred immediately to coolers. The next step is fermentation. 





Yeast is to beer what oxygen is to man— a 
vital element. Its digestive enzymes con- 
vert the malt sugars into alcohol and 
carbon dioxide gas. 



The wort ferments in huge tanks for at least a week. The brew is then transferred to storage 

or aging tanks and after about 8 weeks to finishing tanks, ready for bottling and barreling. 

All of the equipment, tanks and kettles are subject to the most rigorous sanitary standards. 

Well trained employees carefull)- monitor each phase of the brewing process. 




'mM^ 






A fully automatic bottling set-up fills and caps hundreds of bottles 
per minute. Every step of the process is inspected. 



A young couple samples the local product at the Pub, a popular 
gathering spot for the Canal Zone's college students. 



30 



Spring 1972 



50 Years Ago 

TERRIBLY SHAKEN UP AS A 
result of the beastly condition of 
the cow trail, footpath, towpath or 
whatever name could be used to de- 
scribe the only means of communication 
between Panama City and the Interior, 
members of the Panama Rotary Club 
returned from their trip to La Chorrera 
satisfied with the experience and more 
than ever resolved to keep hammering 
away on the fact that a central road 
should and must be constructed from 
Panama City out to the Interior." This 
was the report in the English language 
Star & Herald in April" 1922 after a 
group of Panama Rotarians attended 
the annual fair in the town of La Cho- 
rrera. The report said that the members 
of the club started at 9:35 a.m. in a 
truck furnished bv Harrv Nichols and 
made the 29-mile trip to Chorrera after 
2^2 hours of body racking jolts. 

The Panama Metal Trades Council 
joined the fight against the plan for 
Canal employees to pay rent for their 
housing. But it was a losing battle after 
the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in 
New Orleans denied the petition sent 
by H. A. McConaughey, president of 
the Council, for an injunction restraining 
the U.S. Government from collecting 
rents. 

The cornerstone for St. Luke's Cathe- 
dral in Ancon was laid April 23, 1922, 
in a cercmonv led by the Masonic orga- 
nizations in the Canal Zone and attended 
by President Porras, the Governor of 
the Canal Zone, U.S. Ambassador South 
and many other prominent residents. 

25 Years Ago 

HOUSING WAS THE CONCERN OF 

the 12 members of the House Merchant 
Marine and Fisheries Committee who 
spent several days in the Canal Zone in 
May 1947 looking into Zone affairs "as 
a prelude to enactment of legislation for 
Canal improvement and expansion." 
Upon their return to Washington, they 
announced that housing improvement 
was needed but that in order to do so 
rents must be increased. 

With the Panama Line ships loaded 
with Canal employees who had not had 
a real vacation since the beginning of 
World War II, the AFGE started a 
move to charter planes to fly employees 
to the LInited States. In the spring of 
1947 some 1,300 persons were waiting 
passage on the Panama Line ships. 



The Board of Consultants for the 
Isthmian Canal Studies, composed of 
eminent engineers in several different 
fields, met for a week at Diablo Heights 
early in 1947 to discuss work progress. 
Reports were heard from a party of 19 
engineers who had spent 17 da)-s in the 
Darien jungle making surveys along the 
proposed Caledonia route. 

10 Years Ago 

A 70-FOOT STEEL BEAM, THE 
connecting link joining the two sections 
of Thatcher Ferry Bridge, was bolted 
into place temporarily May 16, 1962 
as work on the bridge across the Canal 




CAMAl 



neared completion. The placing of the 
connecting steel beam was accompanied 
bv the cheers of Canal and bridge work- 
men and the tooting of Panama Canal 
tugs. The bridge was opened formally 
in October of that year. 

In February 1962 the first six new- 
Japanese built towing locomotives were 
delivered to Gatun Locks for tests. More 
than twice as powerful as the old loco- 
motives, they also are faster, an impor- 
tant factor in increasing the number of 
lockages. The first three were shipped 
to the Canal aboard the Pioneer Myth 
and unloaded directly onto the east wall 
retiuTi tracks at Gatun Locks. The 
second three arrived 2 weeks later and 
were set up on the center wall at Gatun. 
While the engineers and Japanese in- 
spectors prepared the new locomotives 



for their task of towing ships through 
the locks, a training program was started 
for all cmploN'ees operating and main- 
taining the new mules. 

One Year Ago 

THE TIVOLI GUEST HOUSE, ONE 
of the landmarks of the Isthmus, quietly 
closed its doors last year after more 
than a half century of service. Its guests 
departed, the furnihn-e was put up for 
sale, and Gov. David S. Parker pulled 
the newly installed security doors to- 
gether at 5 p.m., April 15, officially 
closing the famous old hotel. The only 
event scheduled after the closing was a 




HISTORY 




party for the staff, some of whom had 
worked 30 to 40 years at the Tivoli. 

There was a change in personnel in 
the Canal Zone's top level job last year. 
Gov. and Mrs. W. P. Leber bid farewell 
to the Canal Zone and the new Gov- 
ernor, Maj. Gen. David S. Parker, and 
Mrs. Parker arrived. This is Governor 
Parker's third tour of duty in the Canal 
Zone. He has seived as Military Assist- 
ant to the Governor and Lieutenant 
Governor. 

Last year marked the end of service 
as a passenger vessel for the venerable 
SS Cristobal which was converted to a 
12-passcnger freighter. Arrangements 
were made u'ith BranifF International 
for charter flights to provide transpor- 
tation for Panama Canal employees 
during the summer months. 



The Panama Canal Review 



31 




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